AI营销 第3章 解决营销问题

第3章 解决营销问题

If I had an hour to solve a problem I’d spend 55 minutes thinking about the problem and 5 minutes thinking about solutions.

如果我有一个小时的时间来解决问题,那么我会花55分钟去思考这个问题,剩下的5分钟去思考解决方案。

Albert Einstein

艾尔伯特爱因斯坦

f you’ve been in marketing for more than five years, you can skim this chapter pretty quickly.

如果你已经从事市场营销工作超过五年,你可以很快地把这一章浏览一下。

Consider it a gentle reminder of all you hold dear.

就把这一章当成是你已经知道的知识的简单回顾。

If you are a data scientist working with marketing people,

如果您是与营销人员合作的数据科学家,

I

then you must read this chapter.

那么你必须阅读本章。

Rohit Nagraj Rudrapatna, a senior data scientist at Blueocean Market Intelligence, understands the need.

Blueocean Market Intelligence的高级数据科学家Rohit Nagraj Rudrapatna了解这一需求。

“The biggest challenge for the data scientist is to speak the language of the marketing department,” he says.

“数据科学家面临的最大挑战是讲营销部门的语言,”他说。

“We may face a lot of data challenges but the marketing team and the analytics team work in silos.

“我们可能面临很多数据挑战,但营销团队和数据分析团队却在各自的孤岛中工作。

One does not understand the other’s language and that’s a big communication gap.

两个部门不理解对方的语言,这是一个很大的沟通障碍。

If there’s a way these two departments can make a bridge to speak the other language, I think that’s where synergies can come into play.”

如果这两个部门可以通过某种方式搭建一种沟通语言的桥梁,那么我认为协同效应就会发生。“

Understanding the problem is crucial in an era when new tech- nologies are so often brought in because they are the shiny, new object.

在新技术经常被引入的时代,理解这个问题至关重要,因为这些技术很新很吸引人。

A cool new tool is fun and interesting, but it cannot be useful

一个很酷的新工具既好玩又有趣,但它没有用,

until we understand what we’re trying to accomplish in using it.

除非我们能理解我们可以使用它来要完成的哪些任务。

(See Figure 3.1.)

(见图3.1。)

When television was shiny and new, most of the television ads featured a live performer standing in front of a microphone, reading copy from a radio ad—new tool, old habits.

当电视是闪亮登场时,大多数电视广告都是一个现场表演者站在麦克风前面,阅读来自电台的广播稿-新工具,旧用法。

When the World Wide Web was opened for commercial use, most of the websites were non- interactive brochureware and only allowed people to click from one page to the next.

当互联网开始商业化的时候,大多数网站都是非交互式的小册子,只允许人们从一个页面点击翻到下一个页面。

With big data and artificial intelligence, the conversation most often goes like this:

通过大数据和人工智能,对话最常见如下:

Business Person:

商务人士:

What have you got?

你有什么?

Technology Person:

技术人员:

What do you want?

你想要什么?

Business Person:

商务人士:

What can it do?

它能做什么?

Technology Person:

技术人员:

What do you need it to do?

你需要它做什么?

Business Person:

商务人士:

Can it solve my problems?

它可以解决我的问题吗?

Technology Person:

技术人员:

What are your problems?

你有什么问题?

With no understanding of the technology, the marketing side of the house has a tough time figuring out how to apply a new capability.

由于不了解这项技术,该公司的营销部门很难知道如何应用这些新技术。

With no clear description of the problem the marketing department is trying to solve, the technologists can only shrug their shoulders.

由于没有明确的描述营销部门试图解决的问题,技术人员也只能耸耸肩。

There is a “cold start” problem for any technology, but especially for AI that requires some sort of data to chew on.

任何技术都存在“冷启动”的问题,尤其是需要一些数据来测试的AI。

If you grow up in the marketing world, you pick up a lot of rules of thumb.

如果你在营销领域成长,你会偏好很多经验法则。

You know, for instance, that if you use a picture of a person, you want that person facing into the page.

例如,您知道如果您使用某人的照片,您希望该人面对着这个页面。

If they’re on the left side, you want them facing to the right.

如果他们在左侧,您希望他们面向右侧。

If they’re on the right side, you want them facing to the left.

如果他们在右侧,你希望他们面向左侧。

You know this after years of experience.

经过多年的经验积累,你了解了这一点。

But a machine learning process doesn’t have years of experience; it just has raw data and it has to learn on its own, each time.

但是机器学习的过程没有多年的经验;它只有原始数据,而且每次都必须自己学习。

Among other marketing issues, Matt Gershoff, co-founder at Conductrics, is trying to help clients show the right ad to the right per- son at the right time.

在营销问题中,Conductrics的联合创始人Matt Gershoff正在努力帮助客户在合适的时间向合适的人展示合适的广告。

“We’re going to use a certain set of technologies to achieve that,” says Gershoff.

“我们将利用某种技术来实现这一目标,”Gershoff说。

“We don’t have data or information yet so we’re going to use experimentation.

“我们还没有数据或信息,所以我们将利用实验数据。

Let’s say we’re going to try out a new offer or a new experience for our customers that we haven’t presented before, so we don’t really know, a priori, what the efficacy is going to be.

假设我们将尝试着给我们的客户提供新的优惠措施或新的体验,我们之前没有这么做过,所以我们并不知道,效果会怎么样。

So, we need to start collecting data on it.”

所以,我们需要开始收集数据。“

Business:

商务人士:

So which data should we collect?

所以你需要哪些数据?

Technology:

技术人员:

That depends, what problem are you trying to solve?

这取决于你在试图解决什么问题?

Business:

商务人士:

What sorts of problems can I solve with AI?

我可以用AI解决哪些问题?

Technology:

技术人员:

That depends on what data you have.

这取决于您拥有哪些数据。

It’s far more important that the data scientist understand the problem than the marketer understand the technology—at least at first.

数据科学家理解营销问题比营销人员了解技术要重要得多 – 至少在第一次合作的时候。

Once the technology is better understood by the business side, real strides can be made as the marketing professional gets a feel for the power of the tools.

一旦业务方面的人员更好的理解了该技术,他们在感受到这些工具的强大功能知后,就会取得实实在在的进步。

The machine can do what it’s told, but it needs to be told.

机器可以按照要求去做事,但你需要告诉它做什么。

ONE-TO-ONE MARKETING

一对一营销

To best understand the marketing problem, you have to go back to its roots to see how it developed.

为了更好地理解营销问题,您必须回到它的根源,看看营销是如何发展的。

In the beginning, there were goats and cows.

一开始,有山羊和奶牛。

I have some goats; you have some cows.

我有一些山羊;你有一些奶牛。

I’d like one of your cows, so I offer you two of my goats in exchange.

我想要你的一头奶牛,所以我会给你两只山羊作为交换。

You scoff and tell me my goats are scrawny and old and you would need five healthy goats to even consider a trade.

你嘲笑并告诉我,我的山羊骨瘦如柴,你需要五只健康的山羊来才考虑进行交易。

I explain that my goats come from the highest rated farm and I have tended them personally from birth.

我解释说我的山羊来自高等级的农场,那些羊从出生开始我就亲自照顾他们。

I explain the feed they eat, the conditions they live in, and the awards they have won.

我详细说明了他们吃的饲料,他们生活的条件,以及他们获得的奖励。

I explain that they are young, healthy, and in demand.

我解释说它们年轻,健康,市场需求旺盛。

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In addition, one of my goats is a buckling and the other is a doeling, which means they can breed.

另外,我的一只山羊是雄性,另一只是雌性,这意味着它们可以繁殖。

After half an hour of conversation, we come to an agreement.

经过半个小时的交谈,我们达成了协议。

You’ll take three goats and I’ll take one of your best cows.

你会带走三只山羊,我会带走你最好的一头奶牛。

We have settled on a fair deal and we now both have something we did not have before: a relationship.

我们已经达成了一个公平的交易,我们现在都获得了某种我们以前没有的东西:交易关系。

And then came money, which made things much easier.

然后是钱,这使事情变得更容易。

Rather than trading two dozen eggs for a bucket of milk that could then be turned into cheese and traded for a horse’s halter, the eggs could be sold for coins that could be used to trade for the halter.

不是为了一桶牛奶交易二十几个鸡蛋,然后用牛奶换成奶酪,接着换成马缰绳。这些鸡蛋可以卖成硬币,然后用来交易缰绳。

This is pretty much the definition of civilization.

这几乎就是文明的定义。

Rather than having to hunt or gather our own food, we could count on the famer and the hunter to do that work while the rest of us built ovens, baked bread, and made pots.

我们可以依靠农民和猎人来制作食物和打猎,我们其他人则建造烤箱,烤面包和制作罐子,而不是我们亲自去打猎或收集自己的食物。

People were able to venture farther afield and found new villages hundreds of miles away.

人们能够去更远的地方冒险,并在数百英里之外找到了新的村庄。

Those villages were visited by peddlers in horse-drawn wagons who called on the town’s general store (Figure 3.2).

马车上的小贩们造访这些村庄,他们拜访镇上的杂货店(图3.2)。

The proprietor of the general store knew you on sight as you were in the store every week.

杂货店的老板认识你因为你每周都去商店。

Besides buying goods, the store was the most important source of local news.

除了买卖商品外,商店也是当地新闻最重要的来源。

He had reason to ask about your family and your health.

他询问你的家人和你的健康状况。

He knew how much flour and sugar you usually bought and how much more you were going to need because your cousins were coming to visit and they had teenage boys.

他知道你经常买多少面粉和糖,他知道这次你需要更多的糖,因为你的表兄要去拜访你,而他有几个小孩子。

The owner would pick and choose what to put on his shelves based on his knowledge of his fellow residents.

老板将根据他对其他居民的了解,选择放在货架上的东西。

Figure 3.2 General store interior, Moundville, Alabama, 1936

图3.2 杂货店内部,1936年,阿拉巴马州蒙德维尔

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You were going to need more warm cloth for a new coat because the last two times you came in, the one you were wearing was getting tattered.

你需要更多的布来做新衣服,因为最近两次你进来的时候,你穿的那件衣服已经破了。

Your neighbor had been asking at the bar the other night if your mutual friend could return that wheelbarrow he borrowed two weeks ago.

你的邻居一直在酒吧问:你们共同的朋友能否把他两周前借的那辆独轮车换回来。

The miller’s son was marrying the baker’s daugh- ter and would need some things to set up a new household.

磨坊主的儿子要迎娶面包师的女儿,需要一些东西来建造一个新的家。

Retail was personal.

那是的零售是带有个人色彩的。

That all ended during the Industrial Revolution with the advent of mass production, mass transportation, and mass communication.

随着大规模生产,大众交通和大众传播时代的到来,这一切都在工业革命期间结束了。

ONE-TO-MANY ADVERTISING

一对多的广告

Once trains could move goods across vast distances in days, manu- facturers could produce more than was needed locally.

一旦火车可以在几天内远距离的运送货物,制造商可以生产超过当地需求的产品。

The Industrial Revolution showed up right on time and factories were born.

工业革命按时出现,工厂诞生了。

Once goods could be sold at a distance, there was a need to cre- ate demand.

一旦货物可以远距离出售,就需要创造需求。

The general store couldn’t stock one of everything, but if Mrs. Smith asked for a particular manufacturer’s sewing machine, one would be placed on order.

杂货店无法存放所有商品,但如果史密斯夫人需要某个制造商的缝纫机,则可以订购一个。

And then came direct mail (Figure 3.3).

然后是直接邮寄广告(图3.3)。

A master at slogans and catchy phrases, Richard Sears illustrated the cover of his 1894 catalog declaring it the “Book of Bargains:

作为擅长口号和吸引人的短语的大师,理查德西尔斯展示了他1894年商品目录的封面,

A Money Saver for Everyone,” and the “Cheapest Supply House on Earth,” claiming that “Our trade reaches around the World.”

宣称它是“廉价商品:为每个人节省金钱”,以及“地球上最便宜的供应商”,声称“我们的贸易达到了世界。

Sears also knew the importance of keeping customers, boldly stating that

“西尔斯也知道保持客户的重要性,他大胆的说:

“We Can’t Afford to Lose a Customer.”

“我们不能失去一个客户。”

He proudly included testimonials from satisfied customers and made every effort to assure the reader that Sears had the lowest prices and best values.

他自豪地列出了很满意的客户的推荐书,并尽一切努力向读者承诺西尔斯提供最低的价格和最好的价值。

This catalog expanded from watches and jewelry, offering merchandise such as sewing machines, sporting goods, musical instruments, saddles, firearms, buggies, bicycles, baby carriages, and men’s and children’s clothing.

这个目录从手表和珠宝扩展,提供缝纫机,体育用品,乐器,马鞍,fi重新装备,四驱车,自行车,婴儿车,男士和儿童服装等商品。

The 1895 catalog added eyeglasses, including a self-test for “old sight, near sight and astigmatism.”

1895年的目录增加了眼镜,包括对“老视,近视和散光”的自我测试。

At this time Sears wrote nearly every line appearing in the catalogs drawing upon his personal experience using language and expressions that appealed to his target customers.

在那个时候,西尔斯几乎撰写了目录中的每一句话,基于他的个人经验,使用了对他的目标用户有吸引力的语言和表达方式。

History of the Sears Catalog1

西尔斯目录的历史

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Figure 3.3 Sears Catalog, 1909.

图3.3 西尔斯目录,1​​909年。

Direct mail was followed by radio ads, roadside billboards, and television, and we no longer knew our customers by name, only by ZIP code.

直邮广告之后出现了广播广告,路边广告和电视广告,我们不再通过姓名了解我们的顾客,而是仅仅通过邮政编码。

THE FOUR Ps

4P理论

Product, price, promotion, and placement are the old workhorses of the marketing world.

产品,价格,促销和渠道是营销领域的老牌理论。

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Product.

产品

Does the product live up to the promise?

产品是否符合承诺?

Is it really the best value?

它真的提供了最好的价值吗?

The highest status?

最高的状态?

The longest lasting?

效果能持续很久?

Is the quality so high that customers are happy to buy it again and again?

质量是否好到让顾客一次又一次地购买它?

Does the image it represents actually make the buyer feel stronger, hipper, smarter?

产品所代表的形象是否真的让买家感觉更强大,更快乐,更聪明了?

Price.

价格

Is your product priced for the audience you’re chasing?

你的产品是否是针对你的目标人群定价的?

Think Rolex versus Swatch, Apple versus Acer, or Rolls Royce versus Kia.

想想劳力士,斯沃琪,苹果,宏碁,劳斯莱斯,起亚。

Being the least expensive may not be the best way to win hearts and minds.

通过定价最低的方式可能不是赢得青睐的最好方式。

Being too expensive for all but a few might not target a wide enough marketing to stay in business.

针对少数人的过于高昂的定价可能无法带来广泛的业务,继而维持经营。

Does it ever go on sale?

它是否卖得出去?

Promotion.

促销

This used to just be about advertising, but we’re about to see that there are an inordinate number of ways to get your message into the minds of potential buyers.

这个概念曾经仅仅指广告,但我们将会看到有非常多的方式让您的信息进入潜在买家的心中。

Promotion is not just about plastering your name all over the world; its success also depends on timing.

促销不仅仅是让产品的名字出现在在世界各地;它的成功还取决于时机。

Getting the right message to the right person at the right time is a challenge.

在正确的时间向正确的人传达正确的信息是一项挑战。

Placement.

渠道

Is the product available through the right channels?

产品是否通过正确的渠道提供?

How many sales do you forgo if your item is not offered through Amazon?

如果您的商品没有通过亚马逊提供,您会失去多少销售?

What is the impact of people not being able to call and order your service on the weekend?

周末顾客无法打电话和订购服务有什么影响?

What is the difference between being able to buy your item at the grocery store as opposed to a brand-name storefront?

在杂货店购买你的商品和在品牌店购买有什么区别?

That’s just the start.

这只是个开始。

Marketing professionals worry about a great many more things than these four Ps.

营销专业人员担心的事情比这4P提到的更多。

WHAT KEEPS A MARKETING PROFESSIONAL AWAKE?

什么能吸引营销专业人士?

Sending a message out into the universe and tracking its impact requires keeping tabs on a multitude of stages.

将消息传递给大众并跟踪其影响需要密切关注多个阶段。

Distribution.

推广

Did our message actually go out?

我们的信息真的传播出去了吗?

Our television ad was slated to air at 7:45 P.M. on Tuesday in 14 DMAs (designated market areas).

我们的电视广告定于周二下午7:45在14个DMP播出(designated market areas,指定的市场区域)。

When did it actually air?

它真正播出的时刻是什么时候?

Should we have placed it on the radio as well?

我们应该同时在电台上播出吗?

The New York Times web home page?

纽约时报网站的主页上?

Facebook?

Facebook上?

Exposure.

曝光

Was our message actually displayed?

我们的信息真的展示了吗?

Maybe it got sent, but was it received?

也许它是被播放了,但是观众收看了吗?

On what sort of device?

在什么设备上?

Our banner ad was supposed to be served to five million people.

我们的banner广告原本应该覆盖到五百万人。

Did it show up “below the fold” and nobody actually saw it?

它是否出现“不明显位置(比如,需要鼠标滚动才能看到)”,其实没有人真正看到这个广告?

Was it merely recorded by a DVR and not really seen by a human?

它仅仅是由DVR记录了而不是由人类真正看到的?

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Impression.

印象

Did our message have any impact at all?

我们的信息是否对人有任何影响?

Did it tip the scale of whether people claimed to have heard of our brand or product?

是否有人声称听说过我们的品牌或产品?

Recall.

回忆度

Did the people who were intended to see our mes- sage, and who actually saw it, remember anything about it?

那些想寻找我们品牌的信息,并且实际上看到它的人是否记得有关我们品牌的任何信息?

Did they remember that our company stands for value/ luxury/style/security/safety?

他们是否记得我们的公司代表了:价值/奢侈/风格/安全/安全?

Attitude shift.

态度转变

Did they change their mind about our industry, company, product?

他们是否改变了对我们行业,公司,产品的看法?

Response.

回应

Did they click/call/swipe/retweet/ask their doctor if our pill is right for them?

如果我们的药适合他们,他们是否点击/打电话/刷卡/推荐/询问他们的医生?

How quickly did they respond?

他们多快回应?

Lead qualification.

购买资格

It was great that thousands of people responded, but were they the right people?

成千上万的人回应很棒,但他们是合适的人吗?

Did we reach qualified buyers?

我们是否触达到了合格买家?

Are they ready (culturally prepared), willing (convinced this purchase is a good idea), and able (are allowed to buy [age]), and can they afford to buy our product?

他们准备好了(文化上接受),愿意(确信这次购买是一个好主意),并且能够(被允许购买[年龄])以后,他们能买得起我们的产品吗?

Engagement.

互动

Did people reach out for even more information?

人们是否想了解更多信息?

Return to our website?

返回到我们的网站?

Go back into the store?

返回我们的商店?

Go for a test drive?

去试驾?

Sales.

销售

Did anybody actually give us money in exchange for our goods or services?

有人真的给我们钱以换取我们的商品或服务吗?

Channel.

渠道

How did they buy?

他们是怎么购买的?

Over the phone?

通过手机?

In the store?

在商店?

Online?

网上?

On their mobile device?

通过手机?

Profits.

利润

Did the sales of our products or services instigated through those promotional methods over those channels result in positive income?

通过这些渠道通过这些促销方式推销我们的产品或服务后,是否带来了利润?

Loyalty.

忠诚

Did we reach and acquire customers who purchased from our company again?

我们是否出大并俘获了会再次从我们公司购买的客户?

Customer lifetime value.

客户终身价值

Did the customers we acquired grow more or less profitable over time?

我们获得的客户会随着时间的推移,带来的利润会增加还是会减少?

Did they clog our customer service lines?

他们是否占用了我们的客户服务资源?

Demand that we return their money?

要求我们退钱?

Were they profitable in the long run?

从长远来看,他们是会带来利润吗?

Advocacy.

倡导

Did customers review our goods or services in a pos- itive light?

客户是否以正面的态度看待我们的商品或服务?

Were they a good reference?

他们是一个很好的推荐者吗?

Did they go out of their way to tell their friends and neighbors about their positive experience?

他们是不是会主动告诉他们的朋友和邻居他们获得的积极体验?

Did they tweet with our hashtag?

他们发了相关的推文了吗?

Influence.

影响

Did any of their friends and neighbors show interest, become engaged, purchase, and/or become an advocate?

他们的朋友和邻居是否表现出兴趣,积极参与,产生购买和/或成为倡导者呢?

S O L V I N G T H E M A R K E T I N G P R O B L E M 111

Getting the right message to the right person at the right time means knowing what that specific person might need or want to know at that specific moment.

在正确的时间向正确的人传达正确的信息,意味着知道那个特定的人在那个特定的时刻可能需要或想了解什么。

THE CUSTOMER JOURNEY

客户旅程/消费者路径

To understand what potential customers might be thinking at any given point in time, marketers came up with the idea of the customer journey.

为了了解潜在客户在任何特定时间点可能会想到什么,营销人员提出了客户旅程的概念。

The prospect goes from ignorance to interest to purchase with as many steps in between as a marketer’s imagination allows.

这种包含从不知晓到兴趣,在到购买的潜在顾客流程,正如营销人员想象的那么多。

The fun part is trying to match the functional side of marketing to the reality

有趣的部分是试图将营销的功能与现实中的“旅程”做对比。

of “the journey.”

It’s common to assume that you attract people’s attention on tele- vision (Super Bowl ad, anyone?), spur them along with online ads, encourage them through social media, and then reel them in with an e-mail offer.

通常假设你在电视上(超级碗广告,谁不看?)吸引人们对的关注,紧接着利用网络广告激励他们,通过社交媒体鼓励他们,然后通过电子邮件给他们提供商品信息。

While there’s nothing inherently wrong in this approach, it’s a bit like assuming that you know what a salmon is thinking just before it jumps up the waterfall and becomes lunch for a grizzly.

虽然这样的假设没有什么本质上的错误,但这有点儿像假设你知道鲑鱼在它跳上瀑布并成为一个灰熊的午餐之前在想什么。

Con- jecture and inference have been our best tools for generations, along with years of experience.

猜想和推断是几代人最好的工具,当然还有多年的经验。

We have to admit that we really can’t know.

我们不得不承认,我们其实真的不知道。

Fortunately, it’s worth the effort to use math on the problem.

幸运的是,在这些问题上使用数学是有价值的。

WE WILL NEVER REALLY KNOW

我们永远不会真正知道

The Internet Oldtimers Foundation was founded in the late 1990s for people who wanted to discuss online advertising.

the Internet Oldtier Foundation成立于20世纪90年代末,面向那些想要讨论在线广告的人。

It’s a “private, highly confidential and relaxed virtual space on industry-related topics with the goal of constantly effecting positive changes in the industry.”

这是一个“与行业相关的主题的私人的 ,高度保密和轻松的虚拟空间,其目标是不断的促进行业的积极变化。”

Twenty years later, one member posted a question that every mar- keting person has faced:

二十年后,一位成员发布了一个每个营销人员都面临的问题:

How do you explain marketing to somebody with no background in marketing?

你如何向没有营销背景的人解释营销?

How do you outline the processes of brand and product strategy, research, creative, paid media, earned media, PR, search, reporting, analytics, and finally, attribution?

您如何概述品牌,产品战略,市场研究,创意,付费媒体,赢得媒体,公关,搜索,报告,分析以及归因?

Based on his experience in a career in advertising starting in the mid-1980s, Tom Cunniff took a stab at answering this question.

根据他在20世纪80年代中期开始从事广告事业的经验,汤姆库尼夫在回答这个问题时表达了自己的观点。

Actually, everyone knows something about marketing

实际上,每个人都对营销都有所了解

but… pretty much everyone is wrong.

但是……几乎每个人都错了。

What they know is based on Bewitched and Mad Men and old Super Bowl ads.

他们所知道的是基于Bewitched和Mad Men以及旧的超级碗广告知识。

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Hardly any of that has anything to do with today or the future.

这些知识几乎与今天或未来没有有任何关系。

Personally, I’d skip all the jargon and just tell a story along these lines.

就个人而言,我会跳过所有的行话,利用下面的句子讲述一个故事。

Imagine you want to buy a camera.

想象一下,你想买一台相机。

How do you decide which one to buy?

你如何决定购买哪一个?

If it’s just about price and you want a decent point-and- shoot one, you might just go to Amazon and see what they’ve got.

如果你关注价格而且你只想要一个像样的傻瓜相机,可能你会去亚马逊网站,看看他们有什么。

If you’re more serious, you’d Google for blogs and reviews, and look at reviews from people who’ve actually bought the brands you’re looking at.

如果你更上心,你可以去搜索博客和评论,看看那些真正购买过你正在寻找的品牌的人的评论。

You’d probably go ask friends on Facebook, especially the ones who talk about photography and post good pictures.

你可能会去Facebook上问你的朋友,特别是那些谈论摄影和发布好照片的人。

Along the way, algorithms learn that you’re looking for a camera and start serving you lots of ads.

在做这些的过程中,算法会了解到您正在寻找相机并开始为您推送大量广告。

Finally, you’d decide which camera to buy.

最后,你决定了买哪个相机。

Then I would explain:

然后我会解释:

What I just described is what people call a “customer journey.”

我刚刚描述的是人们称之为“客户旅程”。

People today mostly find out about stuff through search engines—including Amazon—and social media.

今天的人们大多通过搜索引擎去找内容 – 包括亚马逊和社交媒体。

This is the stuff that we call SEO/SEM (Search Engine Optimization/Search Engine Marketing), influencer marketing (people who are popular in social media), etc., which is why SEO and SEM are important, and why having a strong product or service with good reviews is so important.

这些我们称之为SEO / SEM(搜索引擎优化/搜索引擎管理),影响力营销(在社交媒体中受欢迎的人)等等,这就是为什么SEO和SEM很重要的原因,以及为什么拥有强大的产品或者服务并且评价良好,非常重要。

And that is why research, product strategy and brand strategy are so important.

这就是为什么市场研究,产品战略和品牌战略如此重要的原因。

Product strategy is all about what we make and how well it fits consumer needs.

产品战略就是我们制造什么产品以及它有多么匹配消费者的需求。

Good research helps us understand what consumers say they need, but we have to remember that people often don’t know what they need until after you show it to them

很好的市场研究有助于我们了解消费者的需求,但我们必须记住,在您向消费者展示之前,他们通常不知道他们需要什么。

Brand strategy is all about how we talk about our product or service, what playing field we define for

品牌战略就是我们如何谈论我们的产品或服务,

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ourselves, and how we act.

我们怎样定义自己的市场,以及我们如何执行。

This also helps inform Brand Experience, which is the total way consumers experience us.

这也有助于传达品牌体验,它是消费者整体感受到的我们产品。

What about advertising?

那么广告呢?

Today most of it is bought on exchanges—it’s bought and sold like stock.

今天大多数广告是在广告交易平台买的 – 它像股票一样买卖。

Basically you’re betting on which prospect is most likely to become a paying customer.

基本上你是在押注哪个潜在客户最有可能成为付费客户。

It’s a lot of math and science and it’s actually incredibly exciting.

这涉及到很多数学和科学,实际上它很令人兴奋。

What about creative?

创意呢?

When do I get to meet Don Draper?

我什么时候去见Don Draper?

Well… there’s still a role for big splashy TV commercials, but it’s far less important than it used to be.

嗯……对于大型电视广告,创意仍然有有一席之地,但它远没有以前那么重要了。

The most important words about advertising today are “relevance, viewability, and data.”

今天关于广告的最重要的词是“相关性,可见度和数据”。

“Creative” still matters, but not as much as the other stuff.

“创意”仍然很重要,但不如其他因素重要了。

You’ll hear us talk a lot about analytics and attribution.

您会听到我们谈论很多分析和归因的内容。

Basically, we’re doing two things.

基本上,我们做了两件事。

First, trying to figure out what happened—how did people hear about us, what made them consider us, what made them decide to buy?

首先,试图弄清楚发生了什么 – 人们如何看待我们,是什么让他们考虑选我们,是什么让他们决定购买?

Second, we’re trying to figure out the relative influence of all the stuff we did.

其次,我们试图确定我们所做的所有事情的相对影响。

Everything makes a contribution, but we’ll want to optimize our budget by spending the most on the stuff that works best.

任何事都有所贡献,但我们希望,通过在最有效的事情花费最多的钱,来优化我们的预算。

What is the marketing problem we’re trying to solve?

我们试图解决的营销问题是什么?

Putting the right message in front of the right person at the right time in the right context on the right device and figuring out whether any of the work we did had an impact on the buying decision.

在合适的设备上,正确环境,正确的时间将正确的信息展现在合适的人面前,并弄清楚我们所做的任何工作是否对购买决策产生了影响。

Or would it have been better if the above had happened in a dif- ferent sequence?

或者换种顺序是否会产生更好的结果?

What if our big, splashy ad on television had been ignored because of that big news story about the earthquake?

由于电视上出现了关于地震的重大新闻报道,我们在电视上播放的大尺寸,引人注目的广告是否被忽略了,?

Or …?

或者?

Throw in magazine ads, direct mail, posters, e-mail marketing, event marketing, display ads on the Web, public relations, sales presenta- tion, social media conversations, overheard conversations in the coffee shop, billboards, point-of-sale displays, tradeshows, call center inter- actions, webinars, focus groups, surveys, blog posts, search marketing, and talking to your neighbor over the backyard fence, and you’re still not done.

投入到杂志广告,直邮,海报,电子邮件营销,事件营销,网络展示广告,公共关系,销售演示,社交媒体对话,在咖啡店中听到的对话,广告牌,销售点展示,展会,呼叫中心互动,网络研讨会,焦点小组,调研,博客文章,搜索营销,以及后院篱笆旁与邻居交谈,还没完,

You still need to account for the Blue Toyota Syndrome.

你还需要考虑蓝色丰田综合症的影响。

That’s what Dave Smith of Mediasmith calls that moment when you buy a blue Toyota and suddenly start seeing them everywhere.

这就是Mediasmith的戴夫史密斯所说的那种体验,当你买一辆蓝色丰田后,你就感觉突然开始在各处都能看到它们了。

At first, you even honk and wave.

起初,你甚至按喇叭和挥手向它们致意。

“Once you decide you are ‘in market,’ your own radar and filters kick in and you notice a lot more information about that item or category and start consuming content and advertising dif- ferently.

“一旦你决定’在市场上’入场,’你自己的雷达和过滤器就会启动,你会注意到关于这个项目或类别的更多信息,并开始以不同的方式看待内容信息和广告。

Including stuff you come across serendipitously in traditional media.

包括你在传统媒体中偶然看到的东西。

This makes category advertising much more effective if they reach you.”

如果此时通过类别广告能触达你,那么广告效果会更好“

But reaching people has turned into a fractured fairytale.

但触达人们已经变成了一个破碎的童话。

Figuring out which communications channels are best to reach which types of people at which point in the buying cycle requires strict attention and robust rigor.

在购买周期中,确定哪些沟通渠道最适合哪些类型的人需要营销人员保持高度的注意力和严谨性。

This is especially true given the number of ways we can reach out and touch someone.

尤其是考虑到我们可以接触和沟通的触点的数量。

The explosive growth in the number of touchpoints is unnerving.

触点数量的爆炸性增长令营销人员感到不安。

HOW DO I CONNECT?

我如何连接?

LET ME COUNT THE WAYS

让我来统计一下这些渠道

To truly appreciate the marketing problem, I encourage you to visit MullenLowe U.S.’s New Marketing Ecosystem poster2 and take a good hard look.

为了真正了解营销问题,我建议您访问MullenLowe美国的新营销生态系统报告,并仔细看看。

(See Figure 3.4.)

(见图3.4。)

MullenLowe starts in the center with the customer who could be a Suspect (you think she might like your offer), a Prospect (she has expressed an interest), a Customer (he bought something), an Advocate (he says nice things about you), or an Influencer (people listen to her).

MullenLowe在中心开始描述,客户可能是目标(你认为她可能喜欢你的报价),潜在客户(她表达了兴趣),客户(他买了东西),拥护者(他说你的好话) ),或者一个影响者(人们听她的话)。

From there, the poster branches out into a daunting variety of communication channels that branch off into a dizzying number of branches.

从那里开始,图片分成了惊人的各种各样的沟通渠道,进而再细分成令人眼花缭乱的分支。

This is just the two top tiers:

这里仅列明两个顶部层次:

Audio/Video Product Placement Movie

音频/视频 产品植入电影

Digital Television Networks Satellite Radio

数字电视 卫星广播

Network Television Satellite Television HD Radio

网络电视 卫星电视 高清广播

Cable Online Radio Podcasts

有线 在线广播 播客

Public Relations

公共关系

Financial & Investor Relations Media Relations

金融与投资者关系 媒体关系

Issues Management

事件管理

Events, Sponsorships & Promotions Speaking & Executive Visibility Internal Communications

活动,赞助和促销 演讲和行政透明度 内部沟通

New Media Word of Mouth

新媒体口碑传播

Corporate & Social Responsibility

企业与社会责任

Online

在线

E-commerce Gaming Search

电子商务 游戏 搜索

Online Advertising Videocast Websites

在线广告 视频 广播 网站

E-mail

电子邮件

Social Networking Blogs

社交网络 博客

Podcasts

播客

Direct Marketing

直销

DRTV

电视直销

Direct Mail Radio Telemarketing Print

直邮 电台 电话销售 印刷品

Place-Based

场所

Work In-Store

工作 室内

Recreation Education

娱乐 教育

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Mobile Devices Handheld Game Console Phone/PDA

移动设备 掌上游戏机 电话/ PDA

MP3

MP3

(Mobile Apps)

(移动应用程序)

Out of Home

户外

Transit Digital

过境 数字

Traditional Billboards Nontraditional Static Spectaculars Guerilla

传统广告牌 非传统的平面广告 霓虹灯广告 游击营销

Mobile (Vehicles)

移动(车辆)

Print Magazines Trade Magazines Newspapers

<Bold>印刷广告</Bold> 杂志 商业杂志 报纸

Alternative Delivery Customer Publishing

替代交付 定制出版

Experiential Tour Attractions Organizations Arts Festivals/Fairs Cause Marketing Sports

体验营销 旅游景点 组织 艺术 节日/展览会 公益营销 体育

In an ideal world we’ll have figured out how to collect clean, accu- rate data about each individual we touch in each of those settings.

在理想世界中,我们将了解如何收集每一个我们会接触到的渠道的干净,准确的数据。

We’ll also have figured out how to pick winning Lottery numbers.

我们还将了解如何做出最好的选择。

WHY DO I CONNECT?

我为什么要连接?

BRANDING

品牌塑造

Brands were born to distinguish one owner’s cattle from another.

品牌的产生是为了把一个所有者的牛与另一个的区分开来。

Once you have convinced me that your cows are of the finest parentage, are

一旦你让我相信你的奶牛是最好的奶牛,

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Figure 3.5 Bronze branding-stamp: aegis of Sekhmet (British Museum)

图3.5 青铜品牌印戳:Sekhmet的盾牌(大英博物馆)

well looked after, well fed, and have won many awards, I can save a lot of time by simply looking for your brand on their hide to assure myself that I’m getting the expected quality.

受到很好的照顾,吃的很饱,并赢得了很多奖项,我可以通过简单地在他们的皮革上寻找你的品牌来节省大量时间,来确保我获得了预期的质量保证。

While mostly associated with the Old West, branding irons have been traced back to 1543–1292 B.C., in the Eighteenth Egyptian Dynasty.

虽然品牌大多数与旧时的西方有关,但品牌铁器可以追溯到公元前1543年至1292年,即埃及第十八王朝。

(See Figure 3.5.)

(见图3.5。)

This shorthand spread to more and more products as the mak- ers and the buyers became separated by miles.

随着制造商和买家的距离越来越远,这种速记标志应用到越来越多的产品。

Instead of buying a baguette from Fred the Baker down the street, we bought Wonder Bread.

我们买了Wonder Bread牌面包,而不是从街上的Fred the Baker。

Instead of going to a random restaurant in that strange city and taking our chances, we could go to McDonald’s and, lovin’ it or not, could count on the quality of the food and service to be the same as every other McDonald’s we’d ever visited.

在一个陌生城市,相比随意的选个餐馆并赌一把它的口味,我们可以去麦当劳,不管怎样你可以相信食物和服务的质量与其他你曾去过的麦当劳会是一样的。

Name recognition is the opening salvo in this fight for mind-space.

名称识别是争夺顾客心智的第一步。

Next comes trait recognition.

接下来是特质识别。

Companies spend big to get you to con- nect their name and/or logo with a specific characteristic.

公司投入很多钱,让您将他们的名字和/或徽标与特定的特征联系起来。

Apple:

苹果:

Cutting-edge design FedEx:

前沿设计 FedEx:

Reliability

可靠性

Rolex:

劳力士:

Luxury Volvo:

奢侈 沃尔沃:

Safety Walmart:

安全 沃尔玛:

Low prices

低价

If they can get you to remember their name and understand what they stand for, the next step is to get you to relate to them, to become part

如果他们能让你记住他们的名字并理解他们的含义,下一步是让你与他们联系起来,

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of the tribe.

成为他们的一部分。

You know the brand Rolls Royce and what it stands for.

你知道劳斯莱斯品牌及其代表的含义。

You even love the product.

你甚至喜欢这个产品。

But you have no intention of buying one.

但你无意购买,

Ever.

从没有。

You are not the target audience.

您不是目标受众。

Ultimately, you want people to associate themselves with the image you are projecting and delivering.

最终,您希望人们将自己与您构想和传递的形象联系起来。

“I am an electric car person” or “I am a pickup truck person” or “I am a minivan person.”

“我喜欢电动车”或“我喜欢皮卡车”或“我喜欢小型货车”。

Branding is more than simply telling people what they should think of you.

品牌塑造不仅仅是告诉人们他们应该如何看待你的品牌。

A company’s brand is a combination of the story it tells and the experience people have.

一个公司的品牌是它讲述的故事和人们的体验两者的结合。

If you say you’re the low-price leader and you’re not, your brand suffers.

如果你说你自己是低价领导者,但你不是,你的品牌就会受到影响。

If you promise that a customer’s package will absolutely, positively be there overnight and it’s not, your brand is tarnished.

如果您很肯定的,很绝对的承诺:客户的包裹可以在晚上之前送达,结果却没有送到,您的品牌会受到损害。

Marketing consultant and author Kristin Zhivago always reminds us, “Your brand is the promises you keep.”

营销顾问和作家Kristin Zhivago总是提醒我们,“你的品牌是你给出的承诺。”

Your brand is in the eye of the beholder.

旁观者在盯着你的品牌。

So how do we know if the money and effort we spend is paying off?

那么我们如何知道我们花的钱和努力是否得到了回报?

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